Diseases of joints in the human body, emerging on the background of degenerative changes are generalized and named as arthritis. They can be from different backgrounds, but they all have similar mechanisms of development. However, depending on which part of the musculoskeletal system involved in the pathological process, the disease has its own name. If the disease develops in the knee joint, it is called osteoarthritis, that is osteoarthritis of the knee. To preserve function of the knee and to avoid disability, in the advanced form of the disease will require hospitalization and surgical treatment. And in the onset of the disease in the initial symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee joint with the help of medication, massage and other methods can be successful at home.
What is osteoarthritis of the knee, mechanism of development
Gonarthrosis is osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis) of the knee, often occurring in medical practice disease, especially in patients older than 40 years.
The anatomical structure of the knee is more complicated than other joints. He's not covered with muscles and makes movements in the same plane, and its healthy biomechanics is highly dependent on the functional status of the hip joint and ankle.
If knee osteoarthritis is a gradual breakdown of cartilage that covers the surface sustainableuse bones of the knee.
The joint is deformed, disrupted its function. The patient feels pain in the knees, has difficulty walking.
According to statistics, women suffer from this disease more often than men. And is particularly attentive to signs of an emerging disease should be the ladies having excess weight and a tendency to varicose veins.
Causes of pathology
There are two forms of osteoarthritis of the knee: primary and secondary.
Primary begins quite early in childhood or adolescence.
The cause of this disease is improper formation of the ligaments or articular surfaces. Thus, the disturbed biomechanics of the body and during the movement it undergoes is disproportionate to his ability loads. This leads to degenerative changes in the knees of both legs.
Secondary. This form of arthritis is a consequence of other diseases or injuries of the knee joint. Degenerative processes can affect both knees or just one of them.
The main causes of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee include:
- fractures of the lower extremities, contusions and sprains of the knees, which are accompanied by damage of the cartilage tissue or ligaments;
- flat feet causing the displacement of the center of gravity of the body and increases the load on the legs;
- surgical removal of the meniscus, leading to rapid deterioration of all the structures of the knee joint;
- diseases of the blood vessels of the lower extremities, affecting the nutrition of the cartilage tissues;
- excessive physical exertion, which are characteristic of athletes;
- disorders of metabolic processes in the body and excess weight;
- arthritis, especially if the disease is accompanied by abundant formation of fluid in the articular cavity;
- hereditary factors.
The degree and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee
All the cunning of osteoarthritis lies in the fact that the disease develops rather slowly and, thus, in the first stage – practically asymptomatic. For months or even years patient may not be aware of the illness, only occasionally complaining of discomfort in his knees.
The initial stage of arthrosis of the knee joint makes itself felt slight pain during the first morning steps, when moving the ladder when exercising. No external changes to the configuration of the knee during this procedure.
At the onset of the second stage of the disease, and pain become more pronounced, occur at any movement and are accompanied by a distinct crunch. Cavity of the knee joint becomes inflamed, it forms a liquid. When inspection and palpation becomes noticeable the initial deformation of the body. The range of motion is reduced.
For the third stage of gonarthrosis characteristic pain syndrome, which persists even in the absence of motion. Many patients also complain of increased pain before the weather changes. Knee joints of patients with this stage of disease development, almost losing his motor function.
Deformity of the knees becomes pronounced, the patient's foot take O-shaped or X-shaped. Varies gait.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee joint, which develops on the background of injuries, occur more rapidly. The knee swells, appear persistent pain, which is increased by active exercise. Later there is a feeling of stiffness in the joint. In post-traumatic form of the disease from the first signs to major changes may take a few months.
The disease diagnosis is based on the analysis of complaints of the patient's individual risk factors, clinical symptoms and results of instrumental studies.
The most simple and inexpensive method of obtaining reliable information about the state of the joints is diagnostic radiology. It is held in at least two planes: axial and lateral. Images enable to detect the degree of damage cartilage and bone surfaces of the joint.
Ultrasound examination of the knee joint allows to analyze the volume and condition of the fluid in the joint cavity, to assess the condition of soft tissues – blood vessels, ligaments, muscles.
Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography provide the greatest amount of information. They allow you to create detailed three-dimensional model of the organ under investigation.
Conservative therapy of osteoarthritis at home
Depending on the stage of the disease and the severity of the lesion body, the doctor makes an individual treatment plan for each patient. Arthritis always requires a systematic approach to the treatment!
On the second and third stages of the disease to cure arthritis is quite impossible, but with good treatment results you can achieve long remission, when symptoms of the pathology are completely absent or minimal.
At the initial stage, maybe almost a full recovery if properly diagnosed the cause of osteoarthritis is the possibility to remove it (removing a patient's excess weight, for example).
Treatment of knee arthritis has the following objectives:
- elimination of pain;
- the maximum recovery of the affected cartilage and ligaments;
- increase range of motion in the knee joint.
And to achieve them must be applied the whole complex of therapeutic measures.
The medicinal treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Initially it is necessary to facilitate the patient's condition, reducing pain and inflammation. With this task well nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs last generation. These medications have important advantages in comparison with their predecessors, a side effect of which was dehydrated cartilage that provoked its further destruction. Effectively reducing the inflammation and pain, NSAIDs a new generation no harmful effects on the cartilage articular surface. But still for a long period of time they should be taken with caution and only as directed by your healthcare doctor.
Fast at home relieve pain, reduce inflammation helps compress Dimexidum solution of novocaine and hydrocortisone.
Quite often when osteoarthritis to relieve pain and inflammation in the joint cavity are injected hormonal medications. Also the cosmetics that relaxes muscles and relieves vascular spasms, improving blood circulation.
After removing the acute inflammatory process in remission very well proven intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid, which acts as a natural joint fluid. Enveloping the deformed surface, protecting them and penetrates into the cartilage, improves its firmness and elasticity.
In the complex drug therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee joint, the patient will specify chondroprotectors to restore cartilage in the form of ointments, tablets, injections.
Their main ingredients – glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate is required by the body to stimulate the synthesis of synovial fluid, improve the lubricating properties of cartilage repair.
Therapeutic exercise and massage
The effects of massage and therapeutic gymnastics are designed to reduce pain, relax clips and muscle spasms around the affected knee, improve blood flow and nutrition to joint tissues, to adjust the position of the bones, increase range of motion.
Nutrition for knee arthritis
An important element in treating arthritis is diet.
Patients who are overweight, be sure to get rid of extra pounds.
Scientists believe that half to reduce the intensity of pain and significantly improve mobility of knee joints with osteoarthritis can be, if you lose just 10% of excess weight. Man, you must revise your diet and give up some foods, particularly spicy, smoked and pickled foods, fatty meats and alcohol.
A large part of the menu should be fresh vegetables or steamed dishes from them. From meat products is more likely to cook jelly, as this dish contains collagen and elastin, necessary for the cells of the cartilage tissue to restore its normal structure. It is necessary to increase the consumption of foods with calcium. For information: calcium in large quantities is present in large amounts in cheese, dairy products, hard cheese, milk and the sesame seeds. Especially useful dishes containing gelatin: fish in aspic, pudding, jelly. In gelatin a lot of chondroprotectors needed to strengthen cartilage and prevent their trauma and thinning.
The use of prescription knee brace for osteoarthritis of the knee helps to stop pain in the acute phase and to restore mobility. The effect is achieved by reducing a direct load on the affected joint. Bandage helps to restore blood circulation in the tissues and nutrition of the cartilage.
The use of alternative medicine methods is possible only as a secondary therapy. Allowed with the permission of the doctor and can give a certain effect only for osteoarthritis of 1 degree and in the initial stages of arthrosis of 2 degrees.
An infusion of nettle, garlic and lemon juice. To prepare the drink should:
- mix 100 g of nettle leaves with peeled three heads of garlic;
- skip the mixture through a meat grinder;
- add 4 tablespoons fresh lemon juice;
- mix well, add 250 ml of boiling water and cover with a lid;
- infuse for 4 hours.
The finished drink is ingested in an amount of 50 ml for 20-30 minutes before meals. In the first week of infusion should take 1 times a day, in the next 8-14 days – 2 times a day. Beginning with the fifteenth day, the number of doses should be increased to 3 times a day. Treatment long, not less than 2 months.
Tincture of the roots of Potentilla and cinquefoil. A mixture of crushed roots pour vodka in a ratio of 2 to 1. To insist the remedy should be within 3 weeks in a dark place. Ready tincture is taken 1 tablespoon before each meal.
Vodka infusion Golden mustache. To prepare the tincture 15 kolentsi Golden mustache is poured 0.5 liters of vodka and infuse for Crescent. Ready tincture is also taken 1 tablespoon before eating 3-4 times a day.
Bath with dandelions. To prepare the bath use the infusion of the roots of dandelions. To prepare it, you need 120 g of crushed roots of the dandelion mixed with 150 ml of vodka and insist in a dark place during the day. The infusion is ready pour into the container of warm water, stir, drop to her knees.
To take a bath is recommended 1-2 times a week. You can use this solution to compress. After the procedure the pain in my knees becomes smaller and the mobility of the joints improves. The treatment efficiency will be higher if you add in water 150 g sea salt, enriched with iodine and bromine.
Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Shown when the irreversible lesions of the joint and involves the prosthetic – implantation of a metallic prosthesis body is destroyed.